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Tuesday 01 June 2004

Sodium transport antagonism reduces thrombotic microangiopathy in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

By: Sepehrdad R, Chander PN, Singh G, Stier CT Jr.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2004 Jun;286(6):F1185-92

We examined whether amiloride, an agent that possesses epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)- and sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE)-inhibitory activities, would exhibit renal vascular protection in saline-drinking, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). SHRSP received amiloride (1.0 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 6) or deionized water (3 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 6) for 5 wk starting at 61 days of age. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) did not differ among the groups, and there was no difference in the average daily urine output, sodium excretion, or potassium excretion. Terminal urinary protein excretion, blood urea nitrogen, and renal thrombotic microangiopathic lesions were markedly reduced in the amiloride group with no difference in plasma renin activity (PRA). In a survival protocol, SHRSP infused subcutaneously with benzamil (0.7 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 8), a selective ENaC inhibitor, dimethylamiloride (0.7 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 8), a selective NHE inhibitor, or vehicle (n = 7) had comparable SBP. Dimethylamiloride nonetheless prolonged survival of SHRSP (P < 0.005 vs. vehicle), and benzamil-treated SHRSP lived even longer (P < 0.0001 vs. vehicle; P < 0.05 vs. dimethylamiloride). In a separate series, plasma potassium concentration was elevated by dimethylamiloride (3.4 +/- 0.1 meq/l, n = 8) and benzamil (3.3 +/- 0.1 meq/l, n = 8) relative to vehicle (3.0 +/- 0.1 meq/l, n = 8) at 4 but not at 24 h after dosing. These findings suggest the involvement of a sodium transport mechanism in the development of thrombotic microangiopathy in SHRSP, unrelated to marked changes in arterial pressure, PRA, plasma potassium, or urinary water and electrolyte excretion.

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